When the DNA sequence on a gene is altered it is referred to as a mutation. Point mutations are small changes on the DNA and results when a base (a DNA amino acid which is always found paired with another) pairs up with a wrong partner. Most mutations are harmful, but our existence as a species as that of most other creatures depends on DNA mutation. Bacteria are pioneers and rely on constant mutation to ensure their survival and likely play a role in anti-biotic resistance.
Over the millennia our DNAs have mutated to help us adapt to our ever changing world. DNA mutation can be induced by exposure to radiation or when the cell replicates in a process called mitosis. Mutation can happen during an individual’s life; however, such mutations will not be passed on to children. Hereditary genetic mutations can only happen when the mutation is present in the sperm or egg at the moment of conception. In DNA Paternity Testing there can be a slight variation in agreement between the genetic markers between father and a biological child, this is usually due to cell mutation and has often raised doubts in fathers who know little about genetics.